A Study to Assess the Role of Gluten Encoded Genes and Their Regulatory Elements in Bread Making Quality of Wheat

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Plant Biotechnology University: NIGEB City: Tehran Province/State: Country: Iran Phone: 2144787364 Fax: 2144787399

2 Biotechnology and Plant Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

3 1Biotechnology and Plant Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

4 2Agricultural Biotechnology Department, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Biotechnology and plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

6 NIGEB

Abstract

Abstract
Introduction: Bread making quality is affected by gluten genes and balance between their expressions. Hence, it is necessary for a comprehensive research to study and compare all gluten genes and their regulating elements simultaneously.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanism of bread quality in the level of coding genes and regulating elements via comparative transcriptome analysis for two extreme wheat cultivars.
Materials and methods: RNAs were extracted from grain of two wheat cultivars with high (Pishtaz) and low (Navid) bread making qualities, collected during endosperm development at five stages. mRNAs were sequenced and gluten transcripts were assessed for finding differentially expressed genes. Then, transcription factors interacting gluten genes were detected and evaluated for expression.
Results: Results showed Ɣ-gliadin and LMW-GS genes had higher expression in Pishtaz and Navid, respectively. Most identified transcription factors that were identified were active at the early stage of growth and it seemed that NAC and ERF transcription factors had significant roles in regulating genes with different expressions. There was no significant difference in expression of NACs between two cultivars. It is proposed that ERF transcription factor which classified as BREB2C transcription factor could control the expression of LMW-GS genes in two cultivars and functionally act as a repressor for their target genes.
Conclusion: The priority of Pishtaz in bread quality originated from high level expression of Ɣ-gliadin gene and ERF transcription factors.

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