Association of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus, Betasatellite, and Alphasatellite with Mosaic Disease of Spine Gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. Willd) in India

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Central Horticultural Experiment Station (CHES), Chettalli, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake PO, Bengaluru, India

2 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

3 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Horticulture, Bengaluru, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India

4 Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake PO, Bangalore, Karnataka, India


Background: Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. Willd) is one of the important cucurbitaceous crops grown across the world for vegetable and medicinal purposes. Diseases caused by the DNA viruses are becoming the limiting factors for the production of spine gourd reducing its potential yield. For the commercial cultivation of the spine gourd, propagation material used by most of the growers is tuberous roots and stem cuttings, which in turn results in an increased occurrence of the mosaic disease. There is a need for understanding the causal agent; through characterization of which will lead to the designing management strategies for the spine gourd mosaic disease control.
Objectives: Characterization of a begomovirus and its satellites associated with mosaic disease on spine gourd.
Materials and Methods: Total DNA was extracted from spine gourd samples exhibiting symptoms typical to the begomoviruses infection (mosaic mottling, leaf curl) and was tested by PCR using begomovirus specific primers.  Furthermore, the complete genome of begomo viruses (DNA A, DNA B, alpha satellite, and beta satellite) was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) method.
Results: The full-length sequences of DNA A, DNA B, alpha satellite, and beta satellite isolated from symptomatic spine gourd were determined. The full length genomes (DNA A and DNA B) of the Tomato leaf curl New Delhi Virus (ToLCNDV) infecting spine gourd were compared with the other begomovirus genomes available in the data base. The sequence analysis has revealed that DNA A and DNA B components of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd share 95.4-96.2 and 86.7-91.2% identical sequence (i.e., nucleotide (nt) identity) with that of ToLCNDV infecting potato and cucurbits in the Indian subcontinent isolates reported earlier (available in GenBank), respectively. Further, alpha satellite and beta satellite were also detected in the begomovirus infected spine gourd samples. The recombination analysis of the DNA A, DNA B, beta satellite, and alpha satellite of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd showed the associated begomovirus and satellite DNAs were driven from the different begomoviruses, leading to emergence as a new variant of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd.
Conclusions: The commercial cultivation of the spine gourd by most growers depends on the tuberous roots and stem cutting. The occurrence of begomovirus in spine gourd gives an alarming signal against utilization of such infected plant materials in the crop breeding and improvement programs. Using the clean virus-free vegetative propagation material is considered as one of the most important methods for controlling viral diseases. The study is highly useful for detection of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd in the detection of the virus infection in the clonally propagated planting material.


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