Fabrication of porous hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde for bone tissue engineering

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Unit, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

2 Department of Bioceramics, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj, I.R. Iran.


In this study, to mimic the mineral and organic components of natural bone, hydroxyapatite[HA] and gelatin[GEL] composite scaffolds were prepared using the solvent-casting method combined with a freeze drying process. Glutaraldehyde[GA] was used as a cross linking agent and sodium bisulfite was used as an excess GA discharger. Using this technique, it is possible to produce scaffolds with mechanical and structural properties close to those of the natural trabecular bone. The prepared scaffold has an open, interconnected porous structure. It was found that the GEL/HA ratio with a 50 wt% (weight percent) HA has the compressive modulus, the ultimate compressive stress and elongation similar to those for the trabecular bone. The chemical bonding and the microstructure of the composites were investigated by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra Red), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and Light microscopy, indicating the presence of bonds between Ca2+ ions of HA and R-COO- ions of GEL in the HA-GEL composite scaffolds. It was found that the addition of HA content can reduce the water absorption and porosity of scaffold. The porosity and the apparent density of 50 wt% HA scaffold were also calculated. The biological responses of scaffolds were examined in L929 fibroblast cell culture, showed partially proliferation of cells around and on the composite surface.