Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Streptococcus Pyogenes Exposed to Malaysian Trigona Honey In Vitro Demonstrated Downregulation of Virulence Factor

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia.

2 Department of Nutrition /Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences/University of Petra/Amman/Jordan


Background: Honey has been known as a traditional medicine for centuries with its antibacterial properties. It is considered one of the most enduring substances used in wound management.
Objectives: This study aimed to: (i) evaluate the effects of Malaysian Trigona honey on bacterial structure and (ii) assess the anti-virulence potential of this honey by examining their impacts on the expression of selected genes (involved in stress survival and biofilm formation) in a test organism.
Materials and Methods: Trigona honey’s impacts on the bacterial structure (cell morphology) and the expression profiles of select Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes genes were examined using scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, respectively.
Results: SEM showed that the decreased cell density deformed, disrupted, and damaged cells for both bacteria. RT-qPCR showed that the expression of fleN, fleQ, and fleR genes of P.aeruginosa were decreased, 4.26-fold, 3.80-fold and 2.66- fold respectively. In addition, scpA, ftsY, and emm13 of S.pyogenes were decreased, 2.87-fold, 3.24-fold, and 4.65-fold respectively.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that Trigona honey may be an effective inhibitor and virulence modulator of P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes via multiple molecular targets. This deduction needs to be investigated in vivo.


Main Subjects