Document Type: Research Paper
Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Genetics and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Genetics and Molecular Biology Department, Isfahan Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Background: Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway is one of the immune checkpoint pathways involved in the regulation of the immune responses and the suppression of anti-tumor defense. PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies improve immune responses such as cytotoxic activity of CD8+/CD4+T cells and increase mortality of tumor cells as well; however, their use is accompanied by adverse side effects.
Objectives: We aimed to produce a native blocker of human PD-1/PD-L1, for developing T cells cytotoxicity and tumor cells apoptosis.
Materials and Methods: We designed and cloned soluble human PD-1-GFP-pcDNA3.1/hygro construct in Escherichia coli strain TOP10 cells and then transfected this construct into the HEK cells. The concentration of the secreted shPD-1 in the supernatant was measured and the supernatant was used for blocking PD-L1 on the MDA-MB-231 cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+/CD4+T cells and the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells, under the influence of shPD-1 in the co-culture of T cells with the MDA-MB-231 cells, were evaluated using flow cytometry technique.
Results: The GFP expression in the transfected cells illustrated the successful designing, transfection, and production of shPD-1. Soluble human PD-1 concentration in the supernatant of the transfected HEK cells was significantly higher than the untransfected cells. In addition, shPD-1 significantly blocked PD-L1 on the MDA- MB-231 cells, improved the cytotoxicity of CD4+T cells, and increased the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells.
Conclusion: Overall, increased CD4+T cell cytotoxicity and tumor cells apoptosis under the influence of shPD-1, confirmed the effectiveness of shPD-1 as a natural blocker of PD-L1and as an augmenter of the anti-tumor immune responses.