Document Type : Research Paper
Crop Production Division, Central Research Institute for Jute & Allied Fibres, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Kolkata, India.
Background: The extracellular xylanase secreted by microorganisms is a hydrolytic enzyme, which arbitrarily cleaves the β-1, 4 backbone of the polysaccharide xylan; an enzyme used in the food processing, bio-pulping and bio-bleaching. The commercial production of the xylanase is limited because of a higher cost involvement, which can be overcome by the cost-effective production of the xylanase through immobilization of the microbial cell by the non-toxic substances.
Objectives: In this work, the optimization of the extra-cellular cellulase free xylanase production by the immobilized cell of the Bacillus pumilus IMAU80221 strain using Ca-alginate beads along with standardization of the various parameters for a higher xylanase production were studied.
Materials and Methods: Following to sterilization, the Na-alginate solution was mixed with the bacterial suspension of the Bacillus pumilus IMAU80221 and was added drop by drop into the 1 M calcium chloride solution for 1 h for obtaining a uniform sized polymeric bead of the Ca-alginate. For xylanase production, the Ca-alginate beads were then transferred into 100 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 20 mL of the culture medium containing (w/v) 0.02% NaCl, 0.02% MgSO4, 0.04% (KH4)2PO4, 0.1% peptone, and 0.5% xylan and incubated at 34 °C in an incubator shaker (150 rpm) for 24 h. The resultant supernatant (crude enzyme) was used for enzyme assay.
Results: The maximum xylanase production by the free cell (1.9 U.mL-1.min-1) was recorded at 48 h which was 40.5% lower than the xylanase production by the immobilized cell (2.67 U.mL-1.min-1) at the same time. The beads containing the immobilized cells could be reused up to eight fermentation cycles for xylanase production and retained 83.5% of the productivity at the fourth cycle. The entrapped cells were stable after six months of storage at 4 °C and retained 68% of the xylanase productivity.
Conclusion: Cellulase free xylanase production from the immobilized Bacillus pumilus IMAU80221 was optimized. The xylanase production by the immobilized cells of Bacillus pumilus was higher by 40.5 and 132.6 % over the free cells respectively after 48 and 72 h of the incubation.