Biotechnological production of cellulose by Gluconacetobacter xylinus from agricultural waste

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Shiraz, P.O. Box 7144165186, Shiraz, I.R. Iran.


The purpose of this study was to utilize low quality date syrup, a rich and available source of nutrient in Iran, for the production of bacterial cellulose using Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Static batch fermentation
for the purpose of cellulose production by G. xylinus (PTCC, 1734) was studied using low quality date syrup
and sucrose solution (Bx. 10%) as fermentation media at 28°C. Results showed that maximum yields of bacterial cellulose after 336 h fermentation were 4.35 and 1.69 g/100 ml of date syrup and sucrose media,
respectively. The FT-IR spectrum of commercial plant cellulose as a standard was similar to that of bacterial
cellulose. To determine the physical structure of the bacterial cellulose and standard cellulose fibers, scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out. The results revealed more delicacy in structure of bacterial
cellulose. Determination of crystallinity of the samples using X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the crystallinity level of standard cellulose (83.61%) was more than that of bacterial cellulose (60.73%). This study
obviously showed the ability of low quality date syrup, a suitable and cheap carbon source, to be used as a
substrate in a fermentation medium for production of cellulose by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.