Document Type: Review Paper
Pilot Biotechnology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran,Tehran, I.R. Iran.
The advantages of immobilized enzyme over its soluble counterpart arise from their improved stability and
easy separation from the reaction media, leading to decrease in production cost. Immobilization methods
range from adsorption onto matrices, entrapment, cross-linking and covalent bonding to prefabricated
carriers or activated supports. Changes in kinetic properties of immobilized enzyme can produce substrate
or pH gradient, which reduce the reaction rates and finally product yields.