Novel PLA/ZnO Nanofibrous Nanocomposite Loaded with Tranexamic Acid as an Effective Wound Dressing: In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Microbiology, Tehran Medical Science Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: Chronic wounds contribute to the majority of clinical cases, associated with significant morbidity, and place a massive financial burden on healthcare systems. Thus, various bandage mats have been designed to facilitate wound healing in clinical applications. Polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers, as suitable drug carriers, are highly desirable to prepare a controlled environment for wound healing in dressing tissue. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as an effective antibacterial agent for wound treatment prevent bacterial invasion and wound infection.
Objectives: In this project, for the first time, a new (PLA)/(ZnO) nanofibrous nanocomposite loaded with tranexamic acid (TXA) has been introduced as a useable dressing in wound healing. Furthermore, the antibacterial properties, coagulant assay, and wound healing assays of nanocomposite are evaluated.
Material and Methods: PLA/ZnO nanofibrous nanocomposites were loaded with tranexamic acid fabricated by electrospinning method at distinct concentrations. The prepared structure was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Further, antimicrobial properties of tissue were investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Also, the coagulation assays, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo skin wound healing model in mice were evaluated.
Results: Morphological analysis of the prepared nanofibrous nanocomposites showed uniform bead-free nanofibers with an average size of 90 nm diameter. The structure exhibited proper antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, and a good blood clotting effect. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of the structure approved that this mat has no cytotoxic effect on human dermal fibroblast cells. In vivo wound healing examination in mice observed over 7 and 14 days showed a faster rate of wound healing over the control.
Conclusions: Novel electrospun PLA/ZnO nanocomposites loaded with tranexamic acid can be prepared by the electrospinning method and used for wound treatment. This structure displayed the effect of two agents in wound healing, including antibacterial nanoparticles and antifibrinolytic drugs to accelerate wound closure.

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